The weather station and study area belong to Linze Inland River Basin Research Station (39°21′ N, 100°07′ E, 1389 m), a department of the Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073003.g006. weather . Rainfall is a major driver of metabolism in water-limited ecosystems [1]. BibTex; Full citation; Publisher: Public Library of Science. The nitrate proportion of the total soluble nitrogen in the soil also increased with the increase in soil moisture. It is clear that desert ecosystems are sensitive to the rainfall regime, with responses of ANPP contingent on mean rainfall levels, although in different ways for different desert types. Als Bruttoprimärproduktion (engl. average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time. Yes The research on the response of individual plants to rainfall pulses has focused mainly on the physiological and ecological parameters including sap flow, evapotranspiration, photosynthesis, respiration, and water use efficiency in arid regions. In addition, biodiversity structure and the ability of root systems to exploit moisture at varying depths differed greatly between these two ecosystems [20]. On average, therefore, rainfalls supplying more than 5 mm were likely to be associated with productivity in this ecosystem, despite a slight decrease in average temperature following rainfall (Figure 7). Yes China.pdf. Increments in the NDVI could be a direct response of the ANPP to different rainfall event sizes (Figure 5). percentage cover, and to investigate differences between protected and adjacent grazed areas. The observations used for these analyses come from both the Terra and Aqua satellites. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073003.t002. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Meanwhile, in grass (shrub) communities, spring and summer precipitation thresholds for CO2 uptake were 23(59) mm and 51–148(57–140) mm, respectively, and the spring response had an impact on the summer threshold values [42]. MOD09Q1 and MYD09Q1 include spectral bands of red and near-infrared that are used to obtain NDVI which provides information on plant density and growing conditions on the ground [31], and it is widely used as a proxy for biomass production [32]–[34]. In addition, climate models predict an increase in precipitation variability, which will be characterized by more extreme precipitation events punctuated by longer intervening dry periods [8], and exactly how ecosystems will respond to this change is an important question. MODIS Terra and Aqua surface reflectance 8-day composited (which reduces the influence of weather conditions and clouds) collection 5 level 3 global at 250 m spatial resolution (MOD09Q1 and MYD09Q1) in HDF format, were acquired between 2005 and 2012 in the growing season, from the following website: http://ladsweb.nascom.nasa.gov/data/search.html which is maintained by the NASA Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center at the USGS. Model parameters are the average value of 15 rainfall events pulses response (two 5–10 mm rainfall events were removed from the analysis), except for RL, RU, δmax. On this earth only the photosynthetic organisms have the ability to utilize radiant energy and manufacture organic substances using water and carbon dioxide. Due to differences in soil physical and mineralogical properties, and to biodiversity structure and the root systems' abilities to exploit moisture, dune and desert areas differed in precipitation responses: dune habitats were characterized by a single, late summer productivity peak; in contrast, deserts showed a multi-peak pattern throughout the growing season. The amount of energy accumulation in green plants through the process of photosynthesis is termed as primary productivity. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073003, Editor: Ben Bond-Lamberty, DOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, United States of America, Received: March 28, 2013; Accepted: July 15, 2013; Published: September 3, 2013. Question 24. 5a ). Desert plants conserve water through deep and shallow-spreading roots, a reduced number of stomata, rolled leaves, waxy leaf cuticles, succulent tissue, and spines. 03). Search for more papers by this author. Carbon uptake and change in net primary productivity of oasis-desert ecosystem in arid western China with remote sensing technique. The pulse-reserve model addresses the response of individual plants to precipitation and predicts that there are biologically important rain events that stimulate plant growth and reproduction, but this model does not account for potential delayed responses of plants to rainfall, nor explicit precipitation thresholds. There was more sensitivity to growing season rainfall regimes in the dune NDVI than in the desert. In book: Terrestrial Global Productivity (pp.345-362). – Net primary productivity is the difference in CO 2 absorbed by plants and CO 2 released by plants. All of these characteristics exhibited the rainfall pulse patterns of an arid region. However, temporal variation in ANPP at the local scale is controlled by a variety of interacting factors, mainly the seasonal and spatial variability of precipitation event pulses [43]. Few studies have explored how herbivores influence root biomass. No, Is the Subject Area "Ecological productivity" applicable to this article? In addition, in the dune ecosystem there is a precipitation response with a single biomass peak, in August, but in the desert the peak times for biomass are in June-September, especially when the distribution of precipitation events is even. Net marine primary productivity is the amount of organic material available to support the consumers (herbivores and carnivores) of the sea. No, Is the Subject Area "Deserts" applicable to this article? For example, at the season scale, Sponseller et al. Also, the growth rate was calculated as the difference between before and after responses, divided by before responses. The result of natural ecosystem productivity responses to extreme precipitation regimes varying water conditions ultimately trends, though, to become homogenized at a large regional scale [29]. ʅ Click the checkbox to the left of the layer name, Net Primary Productivity. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073003.t004. No, Is the Subject Area "Ecosystem functioning" applicable to this article? These differences result from the corresponding differences in soil properties and vegetation composition. (B) The mean NDVI of the dune study area response to rainfall pulses for Terra and Aqua satellites. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. SCOTT L. COLLINS. The Response of Aboveground Net Primary Productivity of Desert Vegetation to Rainfall Pulse in the Temperate Desert Region of Northwest. Gross Primary Productivity and Net Primary Productivity are typically very low. For example, precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and radiation are enough to account for the aboveground net primary production (ANPP) of North American forests, deserts, and grasslands. However in the small rain event, no competition between the two species was observed in the same vegetation communities as they were dependent on soil water in different layers. Furthermore, for the shrubs Nitraria sphaerocarpa and Elaeagnus angustifolia in a desert ecosystem, the lower stem rainfall thresholds were 5 mm for the sap flow response [13], an indicator of the potential for shrub growth and water use patterns, whereas in a temperate Australian woodland, the threshold needed for rain events to elicit an increase of sap flow exceeded 20 mm [3]. The NDVI curves showed that vegetation response to rainfall events was not immediate, but delays or time lags occurred following the rainfall events and they ranged from 8 to 16 days. The maximum potential response variable values (ymax) in this study were 0.1491 and 0.3554 for desert and dune habitats, respectively, indicating that the physiology and ANPP response levels of dune plants to precipitation pulses were much higher, because of biodiversity and structure differences, in particular for annual plants whose responses occurred in late growing season, and whose root systems were better able to exploit moisture. Yes They have hostile living conditions for plants and animals so net primary productivity is quite low. Multi-peak time biomass in desert habitat was more obvious to be observed in a precipitation regime with temporal distribution uniformity of relatively even and large precipitation events in the growing season. Based on net primary productivity (NPP) and the transpiration coefficient, a vegetation water consumption model was developed to estimate the water consumption in desert oasis in ERDAS environment. Three replicate events fell within each size category. These results indicate that the temporal distribution of rainfall events strongly regulates periods of biological activity in desert and dune ecosystems, a result which agrees with the study of Heisler-White et al. Department of Biology MSC03‐2020, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA … Understanding responses to variation in rainfall event size and frequency will assist in assessing how desert ecosystems may change under future scenarios of more extreme precipitation regimes. Seventeen precipitation events were selected (Table 2). This difference is likely related to life forms and functional groups, and responses to abiotic drivers [43] to which sub-shrub and small shrub species in the desert are sensitive, whereas shrub species in the dune ecosystem evidently are not. One consequence of such a response is a change in aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) [7]. Desert ecosystems are typically characterized by extremes, having the lowest standing biomasses, lowest … This level of production is particularly high in relation to the low mean annual precipitation of approximately 70 mm. Effect of precipitation variability on net primary production and soil respiration in a Chihuahuan Desert grassland. Evidence from δp15N of Soils, A Model for Predicting Continental-Scale Vegetation Distribution and Water Balance, Production and rain use efficiency in short-grass steppe: Grazing history, defoliation and water resource, Surface Disturbances: Their Role in Accelerating Desertification, Phenological Events and Their Environmental Triggers in Mojave Desert Ecosystems, Evidence from rain-use efficiency does not indicate extensive Sahelian desertification, Responses of arid and semiarid watersheds to increasing carbon dioxide and climate change as shown by simulation studies, Validation of a primary production model of the desert shrub Larrea tridentata using soil-moisture augmentation experiments, Carbon balance, productivity, and water use of cold-winter desert shrub communities dominated by C3 and C4 species, Soil surface disturbances in cold deserts: Effects on nitrogenase activity in cyanobacterial-lichen soil crusts, Shrubland encroachment in southern New Mexico, USA: an analysis of desertification processes in the American Southwest, CO2 effects on the water budget of microcosm communities, Using tree-ring stable carbon and oxygen isotopes to improve our understanding of the importance of winter and summer moisture in Ponderosa pine forests across the southwestern United States. The Response of Aboveground Net Primary Productivity of Desert Vegetation to Rainfall Pulse in the Temperate Desert Region of Northwest China . Based on the threshold-delay model and statistical analysis, the results showed that the response of NDVI to rainfall pulses began at about a 5 mm event size. Rainfall events can be characterized as “pulses”, which are discrete and variable episodes that can significantly influence the structure and function of desert ecosystems, including shifts in aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP). No, Is the Subject Area "Ecosystems" applicable to this article? We addressed the following questions: 1) what rainfall threshold would cause the desert ecosystem productivity to change? Although the fit of linear regression reached a remarkable level, the distribution of scatters reflects a threshold. ? We thank Marian Rhys for language assistance. We also gratefully acknowledge the journal's editor and the anonymous reviewer for their valuable comments on an earlier version of our manuscript. Plant responses differed significantly among rainfall event size categories, habitats, and before and after responses (p<0.01; Table 3). For this study, we used 8 years of time series growing-season NDVI datasets to evaluate patterns of plant growth at these two locations. No, Is the Subject Area "Linear regression analysis" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0073003.g005. SOURCES AND DYNAMICS OF CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN SEMIARID ENVIRONMENTS, Dirunal Seasonal and Annual variation of CO2, Diurnal, seasonal and annual variation in the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a desert shrub community (Sarcocaulescent) in Baja California, Mexico, Community Structure and Trophic Level Interactions in the Terrestrial Ecosystems: A Review, BROMUS TECTORUM IMPACTS SOIL CARBON STORAGE IN SEMIARID GRASSLANDS OF CANYONLANDS NATIONAL PARK, Responses of wind erosion to climate-induced vegetation changes on the Colorado Plateau, Effects of N and water supply on water use-efficiency of a semiarid grassland in Inner Mongolia, Increases in Desert Shrub Productivity under Elevated Carbon Dioxide Vary with Water Availability, PRECIPITATION PULSES AND ECOSYSTEM CARBON AND WATER EXCHANGE IN ARID AND SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENTS, Rain Use Efficiency, Primary Production and Rainfall Relationships in Desert Rangelands of Tunisia, Effects of anthropogenic nitrogen deposition on soil nitrogen mineralization and immobilization in grassland soil under semiarid climatic conditions, Effects of Nitrogen Deposition on an Arid Grassland in the Colorado Plateau Cold Desert, Estimation of net primary productivity by integrating remote sensing data with an ecosystem model, Trophic structure and the role of predation in shaping hot desert communities, Convergence across biomes to a common rain-use efficiency, Photosynthesis and nitrogen relationships in leaves of C3 plants, Monsoonal precipitation responses of shrubs in a cold desert community on Colorado Plateau, Responses in stomatal conductance to elevated CO2 in 12 grassland species that differ in growth form, Root water uptake of field-growing plants indicated by measurements of natural-abundance deuterium, Rooting depth, water availability, and vegetation cover along an aridity gradient in Patagonia, Water and nitrogen dynamics in an arid woodland, A Break in the Nitrogen Cycle in Aridlands? The model can be expressed as follows: (A) is the relationship between δt (the magnitude of the increase in the response) and yt–1 (the previous state of the response variable), where ymax is the maximum potential value of the response variable and δ* is the maximum potential response increase; (B) is the relationship between δ* and rainfall size at lag τ (days). The parameter k represented complex interactions among root profiles, density, structure and morphology and soil water dynamics [11]. They have hostile living conditions for plants and animals so net primary productivity is quite low. Pearson correlation analysis was used to study the relationships between the corresponding variables. The relationship between NDVI increments and rainfall event sizes was similar between the two habitats, although the dune ecosystem maintained higher overall rates of NDVI change than the desert ecosystem. Copyright: © 2013 Li et al. The Response of Aboveground Net Primary Productivity of Desert Vegetation to Rainfall Pulse in the Temperate Desert Region of Northwest China Fang Li, Wenzhi Zhao*, Hu Liu Linze Inland River Basin Research Station, Key Laboratory of Inland River Basin Ecohydrology, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, China … Sun Energy lost & Respirationunavailable to consumers Gross primary production Net primary production Growth and reproduction (energy available to consumers) Primary Productivity Worksheet Use your book for questions 1-6, 12, 13 1. To determine the threshold and hierarchical response of rainfall event size on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, a proxy for ANPP) and the difference across a desert area in northwestern China with two habitats – dune and desert – we selected 17 independent summer rainfall events from 2005 to 2012, and obtained a corresponding NDVI dataset extracted from MODIS images. The rainfall event size categories were divided into five types, 5–10 mm, 10–15 mm, 15–20 mm, 20–30 mm, and greater than 30 mm, according the number and distribution of 17 precipitation event sizes. groups of terrestrial ecosystems that share biotic and abiotic conditions. Feeds; … The NDVI of the dune ecosystem increased rapidly with 43.7 mm of rainfall on 20 July 2007, reaching its maximum (0.18), with a 26.21% growth rate; in the desert ecosystem, the same amount of rainfall, on August 17, resulted in a maximum NDVI of 0.10, with a growth rate of 31.53%. Due to the lag, here, the NDVI increment is the the maximum response to a rainfall event. The results indicated that the response pattern of NDVI agreed with the description proposed by the threshold-delay model (Figure 4), but the maximum rainfall threshold was not reached. In desert regions, rainfall events can be characterized as rainfall pulses with discontinuous, highly variable, and largely unpredictable frequency and intensity [2] which can trigger a cascade of ecosystem responses that affect plant nutrient, water and carbon cycling [3]–[6]. net primary production. was 3,650 kg ha-', an extremely high value for desert communities. Yes The response duration varied with the rainfall event size. The arctic tundra has a net primary productivity of 600 kcal per square metre, per year. To determine the effect of precipitation pulses on an arid desert ecosystem, we selected 17 independent precipitation events during the summer from 2005 to 2012 in the middle reach of the Heihe River, and evaluated desert and dune ecosystems responses using the threshold-delay model and statistical analysis. Analyzed the data: FL WZ HL. We determined the rainfall threshold by means of linear regression model, and the parameters of the threshold-delay model by means of multiple linear regression (Table 5). 4) In the intermediate rain event, the competition between H. songaricum and S. xanthoxylum for the soil water was obvious. The values of k were different for desert and dune habitats, 0.9564 and 0.9547, respectively, indicating that the duration of desert habitat response to a precipitation pulse is greater than that for dune habitat. The study was approved by the Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The NDVI growth rate also reflected a threshold, similar to the conclusion from Figure 4. Both the Terra and Aqua satellites were used to quantify plant responses to all 17 rainfall events, and the two different estimates were treated as independent statistical replicates for a given event and ecosystem type. The impacts of large herbivores on plant communities differ depending on the plants and the herbivores. No upper threshold appeared; hence we could not determine the maximum potential response value (δmax). Emphasis is placed on aboveground net primary production (ANPP), a major component of energy that drives ecosystem processes, and on potential evapotranspiration (PET), the abiotic variable most often used to explain variation in ANPP. ANPP is a key parameter of the ecological processes that are limited by the water availability in desert regions. The maximum potential response variable values (ymax) were 0.1491 and 0.3554 for desert and dune habitats, respectively, that is to say, the NDVI of desert and dune can reach up to 0.1491 and 0.3554. The opposite response occurred in the desert, where a fluctuation shift to greater than 5 mm, but less than 30 mm, event size resulted in a 2%–10% increase of NDVI, and multiple peaks appeared between June and September. (A) Dune ecosystem: n = 34, adjusted r2 = 0.59, p<0.0001; (B) Desert ecosystem: n = 34, adjusted r2 = 0.60, p<0.0001. Our results showed that a precipitation event size of more than 5 mm does have a pronounced effect on the NDVI of the desert ecosystem independent of precipitation amount (p<0.001) (Table 3). This study had some limitations: 1) sufficient effective precipitation events are rare in arid regions and differences in the July-August response varied with environmental variables; 2) physiological states affect results: the summer precipitation threshold starts later, the threshold itself is higher, and shrub productivity is lower in the dune ecosystem [42]; 3) the study likely does not reflect the more dynamic responses of desert ecosystems. ʅ Switch between this layer and the vegetation layer (September 2015). [11] and Zeppel et al. Hence it can be concluded that a rainfall event of 5 mm is an ecologically significant rainfall event for ANPP responses in desert ecosystems. Is the Subject Area "Rain" applicable to this article? In this study, the threshold needed for a sharply higher NDVI response was 30 mm, past which rates of NDVI growth increased more than 3- to 6- fold (average of 6% and 22.5% NDVI for rainfall <30 and >30 mm, respectively) (Figures 5 and 6). Our results showed that the response of NDVI to rainfall pulse begins at about 5 mm, and that when precipitation is above 30 mm, NDVI rapidly increases 3- to 6-fold, demonstrating the importance of 5 mm and 30 mm rainfall events for plant survival and growth in desert regions. Die Disziplin der Ökologie, die sich mit der biologischen Produktion befasst, heißt Produktionsbiologie. Compared with a 5 mm rain event, shrub species with deep roots would continue to take up water from the deeper soil after a large event [9], [12], which could trigger a large productivity increase. It rests on two assumptions: that there exist lower and upper thresholds on the size of a precipitation pulse to stimulate plant FTs response and that the magnitude of the response has upper limits. Der Begriff Primärproduktion bezeichnet in der Ökologie die Produktion von Biomasse durch die Produzenten, also Pflanzen, Algen, Cyanobakterien und andere autotrophe Bakterien, mithilfe von Licht oder chemischer Energie aus anorganischen Substanzen. Primary production is the production of chemical energy in organic compounds by living organisms.The main source of this energy is sunlight but a minute fraction of primary production is driven by lithotrophic organisms using the chemical energy of inorganic molecules.. NDVI responses were different in the early and middle growing seasons (Figure 5) in 2011. (C) The Maximum NDVI of this two-habitat study area's response to rainfall pulses for Terra and Aqua satellites. 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