The use of the title "Roman Emperor" by those ruling from Constantinople was not contested until after the Papal coronation of the Frankish Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor (25 December 800), done partly in response to the Byzantine coronation of Empress Irene, whose claim, as a woman, was not recognized by Pope Leo III. Also, as holder of the tribune's power, the emperor would convoke the Council of the People, lay legislation before it, and served as the council's president. During the absence of his older brother in Italy, Constantine was regent in Constantinople from 1437 to 1440. In reality, however, the title is more symbolic, as many states would resist any attempt to assert dominance (this has been a frequent cause of civil wars in the past). The Eastern imperial lineage continued to rule from Constantinople ("New Rome"); they continued to style themselves "emperor of the Romans" (later βασιλεύς Ῥωμαίων in Greek), but are often referred to in modern scholarship as Byzantine emperors. 491 likes. He was overthrown on Irene's orders. [9] 1 Valerian. This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD. Her three husbands, Romanos III (1028–1034), Michael IV (1034–1041) and Constantine IX (1042–1050) ruled alongside her. Despite the existence of later potentates styling themselves "emperor", such as the Napoleons, the Habsburg Emperors of Austria, and the Hohenzollern heads of the German Reich, this marked the end of the Western Empire. He deposed his father on 12 August 1376 and ruled until overthrown in turn in 1379. In the late 19th century, the French philosopher Ernest Renan wrote a seven-volume history of Christianity. Laskarid dynasty (Empire of Nicaea, 1204–1261), Palaiologan dynasty (restored to Constantinople, 1261–1453), p. 183, Karayannopoulous, Yanis, "State Organization, Social Structure, Economy, and Commerce,", Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty, Byzantine Empire under the Heraclian dynasty, Byzantine Empire under the Isaurian dynasty, Byzantine Empire under the Nikephorian dynasty, Nikephoros I "Genikos" or "the Logothete", Byzantine Empire under the Amorian dynasty, Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty, Michael VI Bringas "Stratiotikos" or "the Old", Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty, Byzantine Empire under the Doukas dynasty, Byzantine Empire under the Angelos dynasty, Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty, List of Byzantine emperors of Armenian origin, "European Middle Ages: The Byzantine Empire", Displaying the Emperor's Authority and Kharaktèr on the Marketplace, Spain (Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Byzantine_emperors&oldid=1000049986, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Born on 7 August 317, as the second surviving son of Constantine I, he inherited the eastern third of Roman Empire upon his father's death, sole Roman Emperor from 353, after the overthrow of the western usurper. Although known as the Byzantine Empire by contemporary historians, the Empire was simply known as the Roman Empire to its citizens and neighboring countries. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. On the death of Theodosius I in 395, the Roman Empire was permanently divided between the East Roman Empire, later known as the Byzantine Empire, and the West Roman Empire. His co-Augustus, Maximian, was based at Mediolanum (modern Milan). December 11th is the feast of Saint Nikephoros Phokas, “Pale Death of the Saracens”: Cappadocian Greek nobleman, Strategos of the Anatolics, Domestikos of the Scholai, Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans, co-founder of Mount Athos’ Great Lavra, and martyr—murdered on this day in A.D. 969. Pantheon profile of Manuel II Palaiologos, Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans. Resigned after the revolt under Leo the Armenian and retired to a monastery, where he died on 11 January 844. Only the emperors who were recognized as legitimate rulers and exercised sovereign authority are included, to the exclusion of junior co-emperors (symbasileis) who never attained the status of sole or senior ruler, as well as of the various usurpers or rebels who claimed the imperial title. [3], In the medieval period, dynasties were common, but the principle of hereditary succession was never formalized in the Empire,[4] and hereditary succession was a custom rather than an inviolable principle.[1]. Born in 396. Diocletian, a traditionalist and religious conservative, attempted to secure efficient, stable government and a peaceful succession with the establishment of the Tetrarchy. "[21] Meanwhile, Charlemagne's power steadily increased: he subdued Istria and several Dalmatian cities during the reign of Irene, and his son Pepin brought Venice under Western hegemony, despite a successful counter-attack by the Byzantine fleet. As a polity it included large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe , Northern Africa , and Western Asia ruled by emperors . He was born in Mystra[17] as the eighth of ten children of Manuel II Palaiologos and Helena Dragaš, the daughter of the Serbian prince Constantine Dragaš of Kumanovo. The Mausoleum of Diocletian photographed by Carole Raddato, 293-303 C.E., in Split, via History Encyclopedia Diocletian’s rule had a dark side. Though a soldier from a low middle-class background, Valentinian was made emperor by a conclave of senior generals and civil officials. He would need another power to veto the act of governors and that of the consuls while in the provinces. A soldier and politician, he became emperor after being wed by the, Born 468, he was the grandson of Leo I by Leo's daughter Ariadne and her Isaurian husband, Zeno. He enlisted the Fourth Crusade to return his father to the throne, and reigned alongside his restored father. Born on 19 January 398 or 399. Emperors listed below up to Theodosius I in 395 were sole or joint rulers of the entire Roman Empire. In 620, the official language was changed from Latin to Greek. Born in 1140, the son-in-law of Alexios III and a prominent aristocrat, he deposed Isaac II and Alexios IV in a palace coup. It was a purely honorific title with no attached duties or powers. These emperors were never recognized as Roman emperors by the court in Constantinople and their coronations resulted in the medieval problem of two emperors. Born in 1223, great-grandson of Alexios III, grandnephew of John III by marriage. This endowed the emperor with inviolability (sacrosanctity) of his person, and the ability to pardon any civilian for any act, criminal or otherwise. With his death, Roman imperial succession came to an end, almost 1500 years after Augustus. 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